Tomorrow is Guru Purnima.
Oddly enough, not many people know it is.
We do know Teachers Day, although it falls on an arbitrarily selected date, which does not have much to do with the Guru-shishya parampara that has defined our civilization.
Gurus have now been reduced to teachers, who are paid for completing a syllabus and scoring shishyas based on 3 hour exams that mostly have questions recycled from the past 10 years and tuitions/guidebooks rather than actual understanding of the depth of knowledge.
Education, which was once a pillar of society, has become a money-making (or money giving, if you are a parent) machine where international schools teach you accented English and horse riding.
Where is the true Guru in this chaos? Happy gurus, or “sad” gurus, they are a disappearing lot.
On the occasion of Guru Purnima, I bow down to all my Gurus, and present before you the various interpretations of the word Guru, it’s meaning, it’s importance and it’s relevance in our lives.
There may be different ways to define a Guru, but definition by itself is not characteristic of our culture. The word “Define” has a connection to “definite”, which means I am sure that this is it and nothing else. This thought in itself is alien to us.
We do not define anything, even our own names have multiple meanings, based on context.
And so there are no definitions here – these are all perceptions – experiences on how a Guru made us feel, and how they affected our lives. You may not relate to all of the statements below, but you sure will relate to at least one.
Do read through:)
गिरति अज्ञानम् इति गुरु: – the one who dispels ignorance, is a Guru.
गुकारश्चान्धकारो हि रुकारस्तेज उच्यते। अज्ञानग्रासकं ब्रह्म गुरुरेव न संशयः॥४४॥
gukāraścāndhakāro hi rukārasteja ucyate। ajñānagrāsakaṁ brahma gurureva na saṁśayaḥ॥44॥
गु-कारः stands for अन्धकारः (darkness in the form of Ajnana) and रु-कारः denotes तेजः (light in the form of Jnana). The one who dispels Ajnana by the light of Brahmajnana is a Guru, without any doubt.
गुकारो भवरोगः स्यात् रुकारस्तन्निरोधकृत्। भवरोगहरत्याच्च गुरुरित्यभिधीयते॥४५॥
gukāraśca guṇātīto rūpātīto rukārakaḥ। guṇarūpavihīnatvāt gururityabhidhīyate॥46॥
गु-कारः stands for गुणातीतः (one who is above the three gunas – satva, rajas and tamas) and रु-कारः denotes रूपातीतः (one who is formless). A Guru is so called because he is devoid of the gunas (three states) and form.
ज्ञानं स्वानुभवः शान्तिर्वैराग्यं वक्तृता धृतिः। षड्गुणैश्वर्ययुक्तो हि भगवान् श्रीगुरुः प्रिये॥१७२॥
jñānaṁ svānubhavaḥ śāntirvairāgyaṁ vaktr̥tā dhr̥tiḥ। ṣaḍguṇaiśvaryayukto hi bhagavān śrīguruḥ priye॥172॥
(Guru. Gita. 2.172)
One who has these six qualities – jnana (ज्ञानं । knowledge), personal experience (स्वानुभवः), peace (शान्तिः), disinclination towards worldly objects (र्वैराग्यं), eloquence in speech (वक्तृता), consistency (धृतिः) – is none other than the supreme Guru.
गुरवो निर्मलाः शान्ताः साधवो मितभाषिणः। कामक्रोधविनिर्मुक्ताः सदाचाराः जितेन्द्रियाः॥२७१॥
guravo nirmalāḥ śāntāḥ sādhavo mitabhāṣiṇaḥ। kāmakrodhavinirmuktāḥ sadācārāḥ jitendriyāḥ॥271॥
(Guru. Gita. 3.271)
A guru is one who is peaceful, virtuous, a person of few words, clean of kama (desires) and krodha (anger) and who conducts himself well, and has overcome the senses.
मन्त्रदगुरोर्लक्षणं यथा । गकारः सिद्धिदः प्रोक्तो रेफः पापस्य हारकः । उकारो विष्णुरव्यक्तस्त्रितयात्मा गुरुः परः ॥
mantradagurorlakṣaṇaṁ yathā । gakāraḥ siddhidaḥ prokto rephaḥ pāpasya hārakaḥ । ukāro viṣṇuravyaktastritayātmā guruḥ paraḥ ॥
The Ga (गकारः) in the word Guru is said to stand for conferring Siddhi (giver of perfection), and Ra (रेफः) is said to dispel Papam (sin). Ukara (उकारः) in the word Guru stands for Avyakta Vishnu (Brahman), thus three fold in meaning is the Guru.
बालस्य वा विषयभोगरतस्य वापि मूर्खस्य सेवकजनस्य गृहस्थितस्य ।
एतद्गुरोः किमपि नैव न चिन्तनीयं रत्नुं कथं त्यजति कोऽप्यशुचौ प्रविष्टम् ॥ १॥
Of the teacher-even if he be young illiterate, or addicted to the enjoyment of sense objects, even if he be a servant or a householder – none of these should be considered. Does anyone shun a gem that has fallen in an impure place? Illiterate here refers to one who is not versed in the scriptures.
नैवात्र काव्यगुण एव तु चिन्तनीयो ग्राह्यः परं गुणवता खलु सार एव ।
सिन्दूरचित्ररहिता भुवि रूपशून्या पारं न किं नयति नौरिह गन्तुकामान् ॥ २॥
In such a case one should not consider even the quality of scholarship. A worldly person should recognize only the essence. Does not a boat, though devoid of beauty and vermilion paint nevertheless ferry passengers?
The essential qualification of the teacher is not intellectual immanence, but capacity to impart spiritual illumination.
Gurugita is one text that clearly highlights the seven different kinds of Gurus. They are classified based on how they contribute to the knowledge of the seeker. Classified as Suchaka and others, Gurus are of many kinds, an intelligent person should review and seek the guidance of a right guru.
- Suchaka (सुचकः)
- Vachaka (वाचकः)
- Bodhaka (र्बोधकः)
- Nishiddha Guru (निषिद्धगुरुः)
- Vihitaguru (विहितः)
- Karanaguru (कारणगुरुः)
- Mahaguru (महागुरुः)
The explanation is as follows
वर्णजालमिदं तद्वद्बाह्यशास्त्रं तु लौकिकम्। यस्मिन् देवि समभ्यस्तं स गुरुः सुचकः स्मृतः॥२७३॥
varṇajālamidaṁ tadvadbāhyaśāstraṁ tu laukikam। yasmin devi samabhyastaṁ sa guruḥ sucakaḥ smr̥taḥ॥273॥
O Devi! One who teaches the words and letters and the laukika shastras (worldly subjects) such a guru is to be understood as Suchaka (सुचकः).
वर्णाश्रमोचितां विद्यां धर्माधर्मविधायिनीम्। प्रवक्तारं गुरुं विद्धि वाचकं त्विति पार्वति॥२७४॥
varṇāśramocitāṁ vidyāṁ dharmādharmavidhāyinīm। pravaktāraṁ guruṁ viddhi vācakaṁ tviti pārvati॥274॥
O Parvati! One who teaches the dharmas and adharmas associated with varnashramas, know that such a preceptor is called as Vachaka
पञ्चाक्षर्यादिमन्त्राणामुपदेष्टा तु पार्वति। स गुरुर्बोधको भूयादुभयोरयमुत्तमः॥२७५॥
pañcākṣaryādimantrāṇāmupadeṣṭā tu pārvati। sa gururbodhako bhūyādubhayorayamuttamaḥ॥275॥
O Parvati! One who initiates by giving the Panchakshari and other mantras, such a guru is called Bodhaka (र्बोधकः), who is superior to the others as given above (Suchaka and Vachaka)
मोहमारणवश्यादितुच्छमन्त्रोपदर्शिनम्। निषिद्धगुरुरित्याहुः पण्डितास्तत्त्वदर्शिनः॥२७६॥
mohamāraṇavaśyāditucchamantropadarśinam। niṣiddhagururityāhuḥ paṇḍitāstattvadarśinaḥ॥276॥
Those gurus teaching the usage of mantras with bad intentions (like for attracting, inflicting death, and controlling a person) is to be avoided and is thus Nishiddha Guru (निषिद्धगुरुः) as said by the Panditas who realize the supreme being.
अनित्यमिति निर्दिश्य संसारं संकटालयम्। वैराग्यपथदर्शी यः स गुरुर्विहितः प्रिये॥२७७॥
anityamiti nirdiśya saṁsāraṁ saṁkaṭālayam। vairāgyapathadarśī yaḥ sa gururvihitaḥ priye॥277॥
O Priya! That guru who shows the way to Vairagya (detachment) by the making the student realize that the world which is not eternal is full of miseries and pains, such a guru is called Vihitaguru (विहितः).
f37121तत्त्वमस्यादिवाक्यानामुपदेष्टा तु पार्वति। कारणाख्यो गुरुः प्रोक्तो भवरोगनिवारकः॥२७८॥
tattvamasyādivākyānāmupadeṣṭā tu pārvati। kāraṇākhyo guruḥ prokto bhavaroganivārakaḥ॥278॥
O Parvati! Those gurus who prevents rebirth by imparting the knowledge of Tatvamasi and other Mahavakyas is called Karanaguru (कारणगुरुः).
सर्वसन्देहसन्दोहनिर्मूलनविचक्षणः। जन्ममृत्युभयघ्नो यः स गुरुः परमो मतः॥२७९॥
sarvasandehasandohanirmūlanavicakṣaṇaḥ। janmamr̥tyubhayaghno yaḥ sa guruḥ paramo mataḥ॥279॥
बहुजन्मकृतात् पुण्याल्लभ्यतेऽसौ महागुरुः। लब्ध्वाऽमुं न पुनर्याति शिष्यः संसारबन्धनम्॥२८०॥
bahujanmakr̥tāt puṇyāllabhyate’sau mahāguruḥ। labdhvā’muṁ na punaryāti śiṣyaḥ saṁsārabandhanam॥280॥
एवं बहुविधा लोके गुरवः सन्ति पार्वति। तेषु सर्वप्रयत्नेन सेव्यो हि परमो गुरुः॥२८१॥
evaṁ bahuvidhā loke guravaḥ santi pārvati। teṣu sarvaprayatnena sevyo hi paramo guruḥ॥281॥
One who clears all doubts and removes the fear of birth and death (all fears) such a guru is called Paramaguru. Such a guru obtained by the punya (merits) accrued in different births, obtaining whom one is totally released from the bonds of samsara is the Mahaguru (महागुरुः). Such are the different gurus in the world but one should at all costs serve the Paramaguru.
गुरुरेव परा काष्ठा गुरुरेव परं धनं ।
यस्मात्तदुपदेष्टाऽसौ तस्माद्गुरुतरो गुरुरिति ॥ १८॥
gurureva parā kāṣṭhā gurureva paraṁ dhanaṁ |
yasmāttadupadeṣṭā’sau tasmādgurutaro gururiti || 18||
Advaya Taraka Upanishad, Śukla-Yajuveda, Ślok 18
A Guru is the culmination, the zenith, a Guru is the greatest wealth you can possess. A Guru teaches you the ultimate truth, and that is why a Guru is the greatest of all teachers.
There are different types of teachers. A teacher who imparts information, is an Adhyapaka. One who imparts knowledge, along with information, is an Upadhyaya. A teacher who teaches skills is an Ācharya. One who gives deep insights into a subject is a Pundit.
And a teacher who dispels your ignorance and leads you to the light of wisdom, is a Guru.
Guru Purnima is of a special significance, both astronomically and culturally. It falls on the first full moon after the Summer Solstice, and hence the brightest moon in the year. The lunar energies are at their peak on Guru Purnima – hence enhancing the benefits of meditation and intake of knowledge on this particular night.
In Sanatana Dharma, Guru Purnima is also celebrated as the day when Veda Vyasa was born, and hence this day is also celebrated as Vyasa Purnima. In yogic tradition, Guru Purnima is considered to be the day when Shiva became the Adi-Guru, or the first Guru, and imparted the knowledge of Yoga to the Saptarishis, or seven senses of the body (two eyes, two ears, who nostrils and one mouth). In Buddhism, this day is marked as the first day when Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath.
How do you find a Guru?
Contrary to popular perception, you do not find a Guru – A Guru finds you, and then helps you discover yourself. But then, you do not need to wait for a wise man, with a long beard and long flowing hair, in order to learn. Nature is also a teacher, provided you are able to observe and learn…
In The Uddhava Gita, Lord Krishna tells how Avadhuta Dattatreya discovered twenty-four gurus by observing this world.
When Guru Dattatreya was a child, a king visited the ashram where he stayed. Because his parents were away, Dattatreya greeted the king, who saw an inner joy radiating from the boy. The king immediately realised that the boy was gifted with great wisdom and started talking to him.
This is what they spoke.
King: You have been studying with your parents?
Dattatreya: There is much to learn from everyone and everything, not only from my parents.
King: Then you have a teacher? May I know who it is?
Dattatreya: I have not one, but twenty-four gurus.
King: Twenty-four gurus at such a young age? Who are they? Do tell me, oh learned one.
Dattatreya: Mother Earth is my first guru. She taught me to hold those who trample me, scratch me, and hurt me lovingly in my heart, just as she does. She taught me to give them my best, remembering that their acts are normal and natural from their viewpoint. Mother Earth taught me “dharma”, the value of steadfast perseverance on the path of duty, equipoise, and forgiveness
King: Who is your second guru?
Dattatreya: Water it is a force that contains life and purity. It cleanses whatever it touches and provides life to whoever drinks it. Water flows unceasingly. If it stops, it becomes stagnant. Keep moving is the lesson I learned from water. Also, pure and holy people are like the sacred Ganga, which purifies by sight, contact, and praise. I learnt that purification comes from association with purity.
King: Your third guru?
Dattatreya: Fire. It burns everything, transforming it into flame. By consuming dead logs, it produces warmth and light. Thus, I learnt how to absorb everything that life brings and how to turn it into flame. This flame enlightens my life and in that light, others can walk safely.
King: Who is your fourth guru, oh learned one?
Dattatreya: The wind is my fourth guru. The wind moves unceasingly, touching flowers and thorns alike, but never attaches itself to the objects it touches. Like the wind, I learned not to prefer flowers over thorns or friends over foes. Like the wind, my goal is to provide freshness to all without becoming attached.
King: The fifth guru?
Dattatreya: This all-pervading and all-embracing space is my fifth guru. Space has room for the sun, moon, and stars and yet, it remains untouched and unconfined. I, too, must have room for all the diversities, and still remain unaffected by what I contain. All visible and invisible objects may have their rightful place within me, but they have no power to confine my consciousness.
King: Who is your sixth guru?
Dattatreya: The moon. The moon waxes and wanes and yet never loses its essence, totality, or shape. From watching the moon, I learned that waxing and waning-rising and falling, pleasure and pain, loss and gain-are simply phases of life. While passing through these phases, I never lose awareness of my true Self. Like the Moon, the soul is a continuous reality, although material bodies appear and disappear through birth, death and rebirth.
King: Who is your seventh guru?
Dattatreya: The sun is my seventh guru. With its bright rays, the sun draws water from everything, transforms it into clouds, and then distributes it as rain without favor. Rain falls on forests, mountains, valleys, deserts, oceans, and cities. Like the sun, I learned how to gather knowledge from all sources, transform that knowledge into practical wisdom, and share it with all without preferring some recipients and excluding others.
King: And your eighth guru?
Dattatreya: My eighth guru is a flock of pigeons. One pigeon fell into a hunter’s net and cried in despair. Other pigeons tried to rescue it and got caught, too. From these pigeons, I learned that even a positive reaction, if it springs from attachment and emotion, can entangle and ensure.
King: Your ninth guru?
Dattatreya: My ninth guru is the python who catches and eats its prey, and then doesn’t hunt again for a long time. It taught me that once my need has been met, I must be satisfied and not make myself miserable running after the objects of my desire.
King: Who is your tenth guru?
Dattatreya: The ocean, which is the abode of the waters. It receives and assimilates water from all the rivers in the world and never overflows its boundaries. It taught me that no matter what experiences I go through in life, no matter how many setbacks I receive, I must maintain my discipline, much like the ocean that has waves on the surface, but stillness below.
King: Who is your eleventh guru, oh wise one?
Dattatreya: The moth is my eleventh guru. Drawn by light, it flies from its dwelling to sacrifice itself in the flame. It taught me that once I see the dawn, I must overcome my fear, soar at full speed, and plunge into the flame of knowledge to be consumed and transformed.
King: The twelfth?
Dattatreya: My twelfth guru is a bumblebee who takes only the tiniest drops of nectar from the flowers. Before accepting even that much, it hums and hovers and dances, creating an atmosphere of joy around the flower. It not only sings the song of cheerfulness; it also gives more to the flowers than it takes. It pollinates the plants and helps them prosper by flying from one flower to another. I learned from the bumblebee that I should take only a little from nature and that I should do so cheerfully, enriching the source from which I receive sustenance.
King: Your thirteenth guru?
Dattatreya: My thirteenth guru is the honeybee who collects more nectar than it needs. It gathers nectar from different sources, swallows it, transforms it into honey, and brings it to the hive. It consumes only a bit of what it gathers, sharing the rest with others. Thus I should gather wisdom from the teachers of all disciplines and process the knowledge that I gain. I must apply the knowledge that is conducive to my growth, but I must be ready to share everything I know with others.
King: The fourteenth guru, oh wise seeker?
Dattatreya: I once saw a wild elephant being trapped. A tame female elephant in season was the bait. Sensing her presence, the wild male emerged and fell into a pit that had been cleverly concealed with branches and heaps of leaves. Once caught, the wild elephant was tamed to be used by others. This elephant is my fourteenth guru because he taught me to be careful with my passions and desires. Worldly charms arouse our sensory impulses and, while chasing after the sense cravings, the mind gets trapped and enslaved, even thought it is powerful.
King: Who is your fifteenth guru?
Dattatreya: The deer, with its keen sense of hearing. It listens intently and is wary of all noises, but is lured to its doom by the melody of the deer hunter’s flute. Like the deer, we keep our ears alert for every bit of news, rumor, and gossip, and are skeptical about much that we hear. But we become spellbound by certain words, which, due to our desires, attachments, cravings, and vasanas (subtle impressions from the past), we are delighted to hear. This tendency creates misery for others and ourselves.
King: And who is your sixteenth guru?
Dattatreya: The fish who swallows a baited hook and is caught by the fisherman. This world is like bait. As long as I remember the episode of the fish, I remain free from the hook, and am not lured by the greed of food.
King: Who is your seventeenth guru?
Dattatreya: Pingala the prostitute is my seventeenth guru, who, after a bad evening, became disgusted with her life, her body, and transient pleasures. Realizing the oneness of the Self, hoping for the mercy of the God-within, she decided to change her ways, renounce worldly things, and devote her life to spirituality. She made me realise that expectations of this world and the people in it are the sources of our greatest misery. Pingala let these go and retired in peace.
King: Who is your eighteenth guru?
Dattatreya: My eighteenth guru is a little bird who was flying with a worm in its beak. Larger birds flew after him and began pecking him. They stopped only when the little bird dropped the worm. Thus, I learned that the secret of survival lies in renunciation, not in possession.
King: Who is your nineteenth guru, oh wise one?
Dattatreya: My nineteenth guru is the baby that cries when it is hungry and stops when it suckles at its mother’s breast. When the baby is full, it stops feeding and nothing its mother does can induce it to take more milk. I learned from this baby to demand only when I really need. When it’s provided, I must take only what I require and then turn my face away.
King: And your twentieth guru?
Dattatreya: A young woman whom I met when I was begging for alms. She told me to wait while she prepared a meal. Her bracelets jangled as she cooked, so she removed one. But the noise continued, so she took off all her bracelets, one by one, until only one remained. Then there was silence. Thus, I learned that wherever there is a crowd, there is noise, disagreement, and dissension. Peace can be expected only in solitude.
King: And your twenty-first guru?
Dattatreya: A snake that makes no hole for itself, but who rests in holes other creatures have abandoned, or curls up in the hollow of a tree for a while, and then moves on. From this snake, I learned to adjust myself to my environment and enjoy the resources of nature without encumbering myself with a permanent home. Creatures in nature move constantly, continually abandoning their previous dwellings. And so, I find many places to rest. Once I am rested, I move on.
King: And your twenty-second guru?
Dattatreya: My twenty-second guru is an arrow–maker who was so absorbed in shaping his arrowheads that the king and his entire army passed without attracting his attention. Thus I learned from the arrow makes to be absorbed in the task at hand, no matter how big or small. The more one-pointed my focus, the greater my absorption, and the greater my absorption, the more subtle my awareness. The goal is subtle, and can only be grasped by subtle awareness.
King: Your twenty-third guru?
Dattatreya: My twenty-third guru is a little spider who built itself a nice cozy web. When a larger spider chased it, it rushed to take refuge in its web. But it ran so fast that it got entangled and was swallowed by the bigger spider. Thus, I learned that we create webs for ourselves by trying to build a safe haven, and as we race along the threads of these webs, we become entangled and are consumed. There is no safety to be found in the complicated webs of our actions.
King: And who is your twenty-fourth guru?
Dattatreya: My twenty-fourth guru is a caterpillar that a wasp took and kept in it’s nest. In time, the caterpillar became like the wasp. Likewise, we come to be that upon which the mind is set. And so, I learned that I should set my mind on higher goals, and strive to be the Universal consciousness, so that in time, I become one with it.